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In 1987, the CANDU reactor, along with the CN Tower and the Alouette space satellite, was ranked as one of Canada's top ten engineering achievments during the previous 100 years. Canada's inventory of used nuclear fuel comes mostly from the operation of nuclear power plants. … Nuclear energy produces about 15 percent of Canada's electricity. T he reactors were born in an era when Canadian science and technology breakthroughs weren’t unexpected. Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is the largest operating nuclear power facility in the world based on its eight reactors, which generate 6,288 MWe. Risks of the CANDU reactor design Introduction The CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a pressurized heavy water reactor of Canadian Design. But Candu … Canadian nuclear power reactors are CANDU reactors – heavy water reactors developed by Canadian scientists and engineers. Its CANDU reactors are owned and operated by OPG. There are 34 CANDU reactors globally, 30 of which are operable. CANDU reactors in Canada There are 19 operable CANDU reactors at four nuclear generating stations in Canada. Canada is a CANDU nation Hydrogen, nuclear power, innovation key parts of net-zero by 2050: natural resources minister. The CANDU reactor can aid proliferation in several ways. Location: Kincardine, Ontario Operator: Bruce Power Reactor Type: CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) Vendor: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Number of units: 8 reactors Installed capacity: 6,232 MW (Bruce A & B combined) Status: All units operating Licenses issued: October 1, 2018 Licenses expire: September 30, 2028 Start of commercial operation: Between 1977-1979 for Bruce A and 1984-1987 for Bruce B Refur… Uranium pellets weigh about 20 grams each (a little less than the weight of a AA battery). Operators load these fuel bundles into a nuclear. Sign up for our public newsletter to get the latest information on the nuclear industry. That heat converts water into steam. Canada has a proud track record in the design, construction, licence and operation of small reactors. These were invented and developed in Canada in the 1960’s, when Canada decided that they did not want to build enrichment plants … When the CANDU (for Canadian deuterium uranium reactor) was designed back in the 1950s, its basic features were supposed to make it more versatile, cheaper to operate and safer than its competitors. All of Canada's 20 nuclear reactors are of the CANDU design. Slow neutrons work best for splitting uranium atoms. Today there are 31 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and 13 "CANDU-derivatives" in India, developed from the CANDU design. All Canadian nuclear reactors are of the CANDU … Capable of producing up to 31 million MWh annually, the Darlington station powers up to 2.5 million households. The evolution of CANDU 6 is illustrated in the inside back cover. By 1962, the first Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor was powering Canadian homes, and Canada led the world in nuclear power generation technology. Innovation has continued on the current Candu 6 design. Until 1962, Canada supplied plutonium for American nuclear weapons. Major nuclear facilities are the most protected critical infrastructure in Canada. Point Lepreau was the first CANDU 6 reactor to be licensed for operation, the first to achieve criticality and first to begin commercial operation. As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. Small modular reactor (SMRs) generate between 10 and 300 MWe and are much smaller than Canada’s flagship CANDU reactors, which average around 700 MWe. Other nations with CANDU reactors include Argentina, China, India, South Korea, Pakistan, and Romania. All CANDU 6 power plants are fundamentally the same, although there are differences in detail: these largely result from different site conditions, and from improvements made in the newer designs. CANDU Reactors. The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is the largest operating nuclear power facility in the world based on its eight reactors, which generate 6,288 MWe. That steam turns a turbine that spins a magnet which makes electricity flow to the grid. In 1974, India detonated a nuclear bomb using plutonium manufactured in a reactor given to them by Canada. That steam turns a turbine that spins…. Taken together, these 20 reactors supply approximately 15% of Canada's electricity needs. The CNSC has a team of technical experts and onsite inspectors to ensure that rigorous oversight of plant operation is maintained, in order to protect the public and the environment. Its upbringing was suitably expensive, and the spending has been sustained: in 2004 and 2005, subsidies amounted to $2.4 billion. The Organization of Candu Industries, which represents more than 165 Canadian companies supplying goods and services for Candu reactors in domestic and export markets, applauded the move. That steam turns a turbine that spins a magnet which makes electricity flow to the grid. Operating fa… There are 20 power reactors, all CANDU designs, currently operating in Canada. All nuclear power plants in Canada use CANDU reactors. That heat converts water into steam. Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. But unlike the Avro Arrow, which was abandoned by Ottawa, the candu was a political love child never forsaken by its parliamentary parents. Bruce B (front) and Douglas Point (white dome) nuclear power plants. The nuclear reactor has a special material called a, To turn that heat into useful work (and then electricity), a, That reaction turns water into high-pressured steam. All power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type (of varying vintage). These features formed the basis of a fleet of CANDU power reactors (CANDU is an acronym for CANada Deuterium Uranium) built and operated in Canada and elsewhere. BWXT continues to actively participate in the supply and development of CANDU® fuel and has supplied over half a million fuel bundles for reactors. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the CANDU reactor technology starting in the 1950s. The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is Ontario’s smallest commercial nuclear facility. Despite its smaller size, the Pickering station powers up to 2.5 million households. Nuclear power plants have been producing electricity commercially in Canada since the early 1960s. Innovative Canadian engineering allows CANDU reactors to be refuelled while operating at full power! This one nuclear reactor supplies almost one-third of the entire province’s electricity! Its four CANDU reactors are owned and operated by OPG. On this episode, we talk about the future of nuclear energy — small modular reactors. Today, five plants in three provinces house 22 nuclear power reactors. CANDU stands for Canada deuterium uranium, because it uses deuterium oxide (heavy water) as a moderator and coolant and uses natural (not enriched) uranium as a fuel. Small modular reactor (SMRs) generate between 10 and 300 MWe and are much smaller than Canada’s flagship CANDU reactors, which average around 700 MWe. Uranium pellets weigh about 20 grams each (a little less than the weight of a AA battery). The CANDU is a pressurized heavy-water reactor designed in Canada, and there are 18 of them in Ontario, 1 in New Brunswick and 12 operating outside Canada. If these bundles were packed end to end, they would fit into a s… Ontario, Canada Abstract CANDU reactor operators have benefited from several advantages of the CANDU system and from AECL’s experience, with regard to spent fuel handling, storage and disposal. The original CANDU designer is AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), a federal crown corporation created in 1952. Most nuclear reactors must be shut down for refuelling. Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear fuel is very energy dense, so a nuclear reactor needs very little fuel. Spent fuel — the uranium that has powered nuclear reactors — makes up about three per cent of the volume of nuclear waste worldwide. As well, India developed the design and built 16 reactors that are based on the CANDU design. The reactor was used for the testing of fuels and materials, as well as for nuclear physics research in support of the Canadian nuclear power program. CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. There were 438 nuclear reactors in operation around the world in January 2002, 32 of them are of CANDU type. The neutrons released from splitting the uranium nucleus travels very quickly, near the speed of light. This Technical Summary provides an overview of the CANDU 6 nuclear power system. The remainder of the used nuclear fuel – which accounts for approximately 2% of the total – comes from prototype reactors (used to test full-power reactor designs) and research reactors. Ontario Power Generation (OPG), a successor company of the former Ontario Hydro, is 100 per cent owned by the Province of Ontario. It is located on the shore of Lake Huron, 190 km from downtown Toronto, Ontario, and first delivered power to the grid in 1976. “Assuming, for the sake of argument, that within the next forty years Canada will have 100 operating reactors, the probability of a core meltdown might be in the order of 1 in 40 years, if the most pessimistic estimate of probability is assumed.” CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 2 Nuclear fuel is very energy dense, so a nuclear reactor needs very little fuel. Almost half of CANDU reactors have been built in Argentina, China, India, Pakistan, Romania and South Korea. There are 9 AECL-designed CANDU 6 reactors in operation, eight of them outside Canada. Nuclear reactors are sophisticated machines built to exacting engineering standards. Slow moving neutrons split apart the uranium nuclei, starting a nuclear chain reaction. The reason that a steam generator is used is due to the fact that the heavy water coolant is radioactive from being in direct contact with the reactor core. The pressure pushes the steam to turn. Nuclear plants have been powering Canadian grids since the 1960s, but Canada has been involved in nuclear science and technology from the beginning. It is also the power-reactor product marketed by Canada abroad. The Candu 9 design has flexible fuel requirements ranging from natural uranium thro… The breakdown is: Since the 1960s, Canada's nuclear power reactors have used over 2.5 million fuel bundles. SMRs can vary significantly in size, design features and cooling types. Because Canada has a record of excellence in nuclear technology, other countries have built these Canadian-designed reactors. AECL has over 20 ye0ars experience in development and application of … In addition, 12 CANDU reactors in operation overseas (Argentina, China, India, Pakistan, Romania and South Korea) have delivered a total of about 619,250,000,000 kWh of electricity to their grids, by September 30, 2009. Here’s an overview of how they produce electricity. Canada has exported CANDU reactors to Argentina, China, India, Pakistan, Romania and South Korea. Examples of different SMR technologies inc… This reaction keeps going because of careful engineering and can be stopped at any time by people working at the plant. Proponents pitch SMRs as an alternative to larger units such as Candu reactors at Canada’s four operating nuclear power plants. Produced at manufacturing facilities in Peterborough, Toronto and Arnprior, Ontario, BWXT has supplied nuclear fuel bundles to CANDU® stations since the early 1950s. Although it was later shelved, features from the Candu 9 design (about 900 MWe) have been incorporated into recent Candu 6 reactors. Sign up for our public newsletter to get the latest information on the nuclear industry. Uranium mining in Canada For many years, North America was the world's largest uranium ore exporter and has been a major global producer since the demand for uranium developed. The total amount of spent fuel bundles in Canada would fill about six hockey rinks to the height of the boards. All four Darlington units are undergoing mid-life refurbishment, so they can generate clean, reliable electricity for the decades to come. India also has 16 “CANDU derivatives.” These derivatives are based on the CANDU design, and they use heavy water as a moderator. The NRX reactor at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada's first large-scale research reactor, began operation in 1947 and played a major role in developing the CANDU reactor. The nearly 50 CANDU reactors and CANDU derivatives comprise roughly 10% of reactors worldwide. The term SMR generally refers to a nuclear reactor facility that is usually smaller than a traditional nuclear power plant and that may employ multiple novel technological approaches, such as: 1. passive/inherent safety features 2. extensive use of factory-built modules Common terminologies used internationally to describe such designs include advanced reactor technologies and advanced modular reactors. After India detonated a nuclear bomb in 1974, Canada stopped nuclear dealings with India. In Whiteshell, we have had the WR-1, an organically cooled research reactor, as well as a SLOWPOKE reactor, another AECL design successfully deployed in universities and … When it comes to nuclear energy, Canada has always been an innovator. The energy of the spinning turbines becomes electricity by moving magnets within the electrical generator. ... created the CANDU nuclear reactor… It is operated by Bruce Power, but is owned by Ontario Power Generation (OPG). This goes all the way back to 1952 with the development of the world-renowned CANDU reactor. Though many don’t associate the country with major advancements in atomic energy, Canada has produced 47 CANDU nuclear reactors, with 34 of these are operating internationally. Additionally, Canada has exported 10 CANDU reactors in India, Pakistan, Argentina, South Korea, Romania, and China. Seventy years later, Canada is leading the charge once again. The Darlington nuclear generating station is Canada’s second-largest nuclear facility by total energy output. Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. Since its inception in the late 1950s, the Candu reactor design has gone through several generations of evolution to improve fuel efficiency and flexibility, meet more stringent safety requirements and reduce costs and construction time. There are 19 operable CANDU reactors at four nuclear generating stations in Canada. According to a 2012 report by the Canadian Nuclear Association, “building a pair of [CANDU] reactors outside of Canada supports over 2,200 person years of direct, high-wage work and over $2.5 billion in economic activity here in Canada.” Canada's long history of nuclear research and energy generation means that the sector supports 30,000 Canadian jobs across 150 companies. Ontario Hydro was one of the founding members of COG’s predecessor, CANDev (CANDU Development) and formation of COG in 1984. The Canadian nuclear industry is one of the most closely monitored industries in the world. 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